Tuesday, January 31, 2012

80,000 visits

Congratulations everybody!!




I write this post because we have reached 80,000 visits!! Can you believe it? We should be proud of it and we have to continue writing interesting posts on this blog because there are many many people around the world who like this and this is very helpful for them, I'm sure!!
We would also like these people to write comments on the posts to add interesting things or, only their opinion. We would be very grateful.
I recommend to my classmates to read the posts Paqui has added about Marxism and utoian socialism, because she has added new things which are not in the unit and are also very interesting!
And finally, I'd like to say to Paqui that don't get nervous, in very little time you'll come to the lessons again. I hope you liked the biscuits and the visit yesterday. I couldn't go, I suppose they told you. So get well soon Paqui! See you very very soon!

Something more about Marxism


Marx and Engels working together


Karl Marx studied Law and later Philosophy and he was also interested in Economics and History. He worked as a journalist temporarily, but he spent most of the time writing books, where he explained his ideas.

Friedrich Engels´s father owned a textile factory in Manchester and Engels worked there, although he didn´t like the job. In Manchester Engels knew about the workers´ poverty and suffering and this caused  a strong  impression on him. Engels often helped Marx economically, lending him money, so that he could maintain his family. 

In 1848 Marx and Engels, who were members of the Communist League, were in charge of writing one of the most influencial books in history: the Communist Manifesto. This book started with the following words: "A spectre is haunting Europe- the spectre of communism". 

Marx wrote many other books. His major work was The Capital. Marx only finished the first of its three volumes. When he died, Engels completed and edited the two other volumes. 

Marx read a lot of books and drew inspiration from several thinkers: 
- The German Philosophers Hegel and Feuerbach.
- The British theorists of Economic Liberalism: Adam Smith and David Ricardo.
- The French socialists Blanqui, Proudhon and Blanc.

Here you have some of the conclusions Marx reached from his studies:

- Dialectical Materialism was the instrument used by Marx to analyze history. "Dialectical" comes from "dialogue" and it means reaching conclusions through debate, discussion. "Materialism" comes from "matter" and it means a scientific explanation of the world, letting divine explanations apart. According to Marx, humanity had moved forward due to a continuous fight between opposites. This confrontation (struggle) made change possible and gave birth to new situations.

Dialectical Materialism

Marx observed that human history had been a continuous confrontation between oppressors and oppressed. Social harmony was impossible, because the domination of one social group was based on oppressing and exploiting other groups. For him class struggle was necessary for human progress. In the 19th century the two confronted groups were the bourgeois and the proletarians (workers) and their struggle would result into a proletarian revolution and lead to a communist society after a transition stage (dictatorship of the proletariat).


Dialectical Materialist analysis on history


- During the French Revolution the bourgeois had fought to defend freedom and private property. They had succeeded and then the citizens were free in theory. But for most of the population (those who didn´t own properties) the only freedom they had was the freedom of selling themselves, the freedom of selling their labour force to survive. Marx considered private property as the maximum form of alienation, because  it obliged people to sell themselves in order to get things. The more things one had, the less of himself he had. And he also considered that much of the evil things of the world came from the defense of private property: wars, misery, crimes, discrimination, slavery... That´s why he predicted that in the future a revolution would end with private property and change it into collective.

- Marx was convinced of the fact that the internal contradictions of capitalism would lead to its destruction, because the workers wouldn´t stand the way they lived and they would start a revolution. Marx considered that workers had to be ready for revolution and they had to unite and form unions and political parties. However, Marx considered that labour parties could help workers get some concessions from the capitalists, but that wouldn´t modify the exploitation situation and revolution would be unavoidable.

- Marx also studied women´s condition and was a defender of women´s emancipation. He considered that in the family women were as proletarians and their husbands were as the bourgeois.

Marx´s works were read and interpreted by many people. Sometimes his ideas were misinterpreted to such a degree that Marx said "I´m not a Marxist". This means that he didn´t feel identified with many of the ideas considered to be Marxist. You don´t have to forget that Marx´s ideas were predictions, conclusions extracted from his studies, but not recipes or instructions about how to make a revolution. 

The Communist Manifesto: 


The Marx and Engels Internet Archive:

Monday, January 30, 2012

Charles Fourier´s phalanstère



Charles Fourier was a French utopian socialist who rejected industrialization and free market economy and was very critical with capitalism, because he considered that they contributed to workers´ exploitation. He promoted the return to the land and agriculture and he proposed the creation of an ideal community called phalanstère. This word comes from the Greek “phalanx” and it referred to a community located in the countryside formed by around 1,600-1,800 people (400 families of around 4 members). He considered that this was the ideal size to freely develop desires and passions. It should be 400 hectares long and concentrate agricultural and industrial activities. A phalanstère would have the structure of a public limited society, whose members would receive shares in relation with the capital they provided to the community, and it would be ruled in a democratic way. Three parts of the activity would be devoted to agriculture and one part to manufacturing. The members could choose the work they wanted to do. In order to avoid monotony, Fourier proposed that workers changed activity 8 times a day. The profits would be distributed according to the following scheme: profits would be divided into 12 parts and 4/12 would be distributed according to the capital invested, 5/12 according to the work done and 3/12 would be for the technical and scientific experts.

Fourier also thought about the distribution of space in the phalanstères:


- the central part, destined to quiet activities, with meeting rooms, dining rooms and libraries.

- one of the lateral wings for work and the noisy activities. Children would also be hosted in this side,    because they were noisy 

- the other lateral wing would be destined to the external visits. The visitors would pay a fee, which would be used to finance the community. 



In 1832 Fourier put his ideas into practice at Condé-sur-Vesgre, 75 kilometres West Paris, but the project failed in 1834 due to the lack of capital and inexperience of the members. He didn´t create any more phalanstères in Europe, because he didn´t find financing to do it, but there were experiences based on his ideas in the U.S.A (around 40-50 phalanstères) and other places. These projects failed for the difficulties of reaching agreements and the lack of commitment of some of their members.

There is not much information about phalanstères in English (apart from the one provided by Wikipedia). But if you want to learn something more, you can go to the following links in French:

- The first phalanstère:


- More information about phalanstères:

   

Robert Owen, New Lanark and New Harmony


Robert Owen

Robert Owen was the owner of a cotton factory that worked with water power in New Lanark, Scotland. He was strongly influenced by the ideas of Enlightenment and he decided to improve the lives of his workers and show that it was possible to get profits without exploiting workers. In New Lanark Owen created a community where the rights of workers were respected, they had access to cooperative shops, decent housing, free medical care and children could go to school (New Lanark´s school was the first infants´ school created in Great Britain). Children under 10 years were not allowed to work, there were also evening lessons for adults and all type of activities for the workers´ leisure time (concerts, dancing, music).


New Lanark at present

In 1825 he left New Lanark and tried to extend his ideas of improving the life of workers through common property and cooperation to the U.S.A. He founded a new community called New Harmony in Indiana. Private property and money were abolished and they created a system similar to time banks. Workers received banknotes equivalent to the time they had worked and they could exchange them for different goods. Owen worked hard to make New Harmony a model society, but this experience failed due to different factors: the most important one was the lack of commitment of many of the individuals who joined the community. 


New Harmony, painted by F. Bate


In 1828 Robert Owen left the project and came back to Great Britain. He dedicated his efforts to workers´ organization and his role was fundamental in the creation of the Grand National Consolidated Trade Union, a group that included all the British unions. After this, Owen continued to promote co-operative movement, although some of his projects failed. That´s why Owen has been included among utopian socialists. These thinkers had the idea that human beings are willing to co-operate and work for the community wellbeing. The fact is that these experiences failed due to individualism.

If you want to learn more about Robert Owen´s experiences, here you have some links: 

- Robert Owen and New Lanark:


- New Harmony:


- Robert Owen Museum:


If you go to Scotland, you can visit New Lanark: 

30th January 2012

Today in Social Sciences, Mª Ángeles, the mathematical teacher, has been with us. She has given us a sheet of paper to write the names to know who has not assisted. Then we have done the exercises that Paqui wrote on the blog to do today, and they were about Socialism and Anarchism. The socialists were some thinkers who started criticizing wealth concentration in the hands of a few and workers' misery and proposed new ways of organizing society and distributing wealth. Utopian socialism appeared. It was a proposition of a transformation of society based on collective property which failed. The firts proposition were made by Robert Owen, the Count of Saint- Simon and Charles Fourier, who were utopians. Here we can see them:
After that, we have had to explain the main ideas of Marxims/scientific socialism. It started by two German thinkers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who studied capitalism and reached some conclusions, published in the Communist Manifesto in 1848. The ideas were:
-The history of humanity has always been a continuous struggle between oppressors and oppressed.
-In the 19th century there was a class struglle between the bourgeois (oppressors) and the workers (oppressed).
-The hard living conditions of workers and their exploitation by the capitalists would lead to a workers' revolution, in 2 stages:
· 1st stage: Dictatorship of the proletariat: workers would take power and use the State to transform society, changing private properties into collective.
· 2nd stage: When the class differences had disappeared, the State wouldn't be necessary and a communist society would appear: a society without social classes, private property and State.
Marx and Engels considered that workers had to organize themselves and get ready for the moment of the revolution, but also to participate and influence in politics. Here we can also see them:
Finally, we have seen the main ideas of anarchism. It means "without government". Bakunin, Kropotkin and Proudhon were the main anarchist thinkers which their ideas were:
- People are born free, but institutions such as the school, the army, the State snatch their freedom and prevent people from developing all their capabilities.
- The only way of recovering freedom is to end with everything that limits people's capabilities and let people decide how to organize their life: they can choose between associating with other people or staying apart.
They were the following:

That's all for today, I hope you were better Paqui.

Economic cycles and cyclical crises

Cyclical crises are one of the features of capitalism. These cyclical crises are related to economic cycles, which are the fluctuations observed in economic activities. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, several experts studied the evolution of economy and they observed some kind of cycles or events that repeated from time to time. The typical economic cycle (also called business cycle) includes the following stages: expansion, crisis, recession and recovery.


These are the most important facts in the history of study of cyclical crises:

-      In 1819 Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi was the first to tell that there were periodic economic crises related to overproduction and underconsumption.

-        In 1860 Clement Juglar observed economic cycles of 7-11 years.

-      Joseph Schumpeter systematized the studies of different economists about cyclical crises and their explanations. Apart from Juglar´s cycles, Schumpeter added  Kitchin´s inventory cycle (3-5 years), Kuznets´s infrastructural investment cycle (15-25 years) and Kondratiev´s waves(45-60 years)



Karl Marx, the most important theorist of scientific socialism, dedicated a lot of time to study capitalist crises and he concluded that they would be more and more serious, working conditions would get worse would  and this would lead to a proletarian revolution. 

Sunday, January 29, 2012

Activities for this week




This is the work you will have to do this week in the classroom and at home: 


MONDAY, 30th
- Student in charge of the journal: Ana de la Fuente.

- Read point 3 ("Socialism and anarchism"on pages 29 and 30 and do activities 13, 14 and 15 of page 31

WEDNESDAY, 1st FEBRUARY
- Student in charge of the journal: Juan Carlos Huertas


- Check with Cristina Blanco the activities you did at home and on Monday. She will use the PowerPoint presentation to show you images and schemes to help you complete the information of the activities.

- Read the point "The International Workingmen´s Association" on page 30 and do exercise 16 of page 31. If you don´t have time during the lesson, do this exercise for homework. 

THURSDAY, 2nd FEBRUARY
- Student in charge of the journal: Mari Luz Ortiz

- Check the exercises left.

- Do the crossword of page 32 to review the unit. Don´t check your notes or the book. Try to do it with what you remember about the unit. When you finish it, check it with Cristina.

You should also start thinking about a date to do the exam of this unit and the last contents of Unit 3 (Restoration, Ferdinand VII´s reign, the Regencies and the Moderate Decade in Spain). 

Thursday, January 26, 2012

26th of January

Today Cristina has been with us,she has shown us a power point to chek the exercises.
We have checked, six questions about the Development of the first industrial revolution.
New energy sources appeared hydroelectric power and coal,new organization fo industrial work: factory system: concentration fo workers and machines in big factories and division of work. The industries that developed during the frist industrial revolution were Textile industry and Iron and steel industry. Development of textile and iron and steel industry due to the production process was mechanized withi some inventions, use of coke in blas furnances, the bessemer that transformer iron into steel etc. Improvements in transport due to ameliration of traditional infrastructures, speed increased and the duration and travel duration and expenses travels reduced.
Then we have checked 3 exercises about the Development of industrial capitalism.
Principles of economic liberalism
-Economy based on self interest.
-The different interests of the people meet in the market and they interact according to the law of supply and demand.
-The means of production ar private property of a reduced group of people
-The state doesn´t have to intervene in economy.
Banks in industrial capitalism provided enterprises with capital through loans, they invested directly in eterprises buying their shares and they facilitate payments by check.
Companies divided their capital into stocks because companies needed more money and it was difficult to find investors.
After that we have checked the last three exercises about the Second industrial revolution. The main sources used were electricity and oil the invention of the dynamo which made the production of electricity in hydroelectirc power stations possible. The invention of the alternator and the transformer allowed electricity transport. Oil was used as fuel, many inventions transformed it in the main energy source. The consequences were:
- Mass production allowed more people to get acces to product.
- Massive explotation of resources
- Beginning of massive emigration from the countryside to the cities.
- Cyclical crises appeared.
Society was divided into two parts.
- Bourgeoisie: Owner of industries and enterprises.
- High bourgeoisie
- Middle bourgeoisie
- Petty bourgeoisie
- Working class:( Ploretariat) They were the majority of the society. They have to work for a salary.
At the end of the class Cristina has given us some homework for next wee: page 31 exercises 10,11,12.

2011-2012 Challenges. Number 17

Here you have some questions about the Second Industrial Revolution inventions:  

QUESTION 1
Who were the inventors of the following crucial inventions: first electric battery, first electric motor, telegraph, incandescent light bulb, four-stroke engine, radio?

QUESTION 2

What was the first electrical telegraph line? When did it start working?

QUESTION 3

What was Menlo Park? Who was the "Wizard of Menlo Park" and why was he called this way?


QUESTION 4
What was the so called "War of currents"? Who were its main protagonists? What lethal invention was related to this war?

QUESTION 5
There are thousands of women inventors, but their achievements remain mainly unknown. Here you have some important women inventors who contributed to make life easier: Margaret Knight, Mary Anderson, Josephine Cochran and Katherine Blodgett. What did they invent?


QUESTION 6
Some inventions soon became consumer goods and are present almost in every house in the developed countries. Who were the inventors of the sewing machine and the washing machine?

P.S: I´m not including the sources of the pictures until someone answers the questions. 

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Antonio Meucci, the true inventor of the telephone



Antonio Meucci

You may have studied at school that Alexander Graham Bell was the inventor of the telephone. But this was not exactly true. The true inventor of the telephone was an Italian-American called Antonio Meucci. In 1854 Meucci built the first telephone to communicate some rooms of his house, beacuse his wife suffered from rheumatism. In 1860 he presented his invention in New York, but he didn´t have enough money to pay the patent expenses. He called  his invention "Telettrofono". Some years later he had an accident and his wife had to sell many of his prototypes in a pawnshop. Once recovered, Meucci tried to redeem his prototype from the pawnshop, but it had been sold to an unidentified young man. Meucci worked hard to rebuild his telephone and get money enough to pay the patent, but he couldn´t pay a definitive patent. In 1874 he sent his material and an explanation of his invention to the Western Union Telegraph Company, but he couldn´t get a meeting with the executives of the company. As he didn´t receive any answer from the company, he decided to ask for his invention to be returned, but they told him that the telephone had been lost. Two years later, Alexander Graham Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci at the Western Union, registered the patent of the telephone with his name and became very rich and famous. Bell apparently stole Meucci´s invention. Meucci went to the court and tried to be recognized as the real inventor of the telephone, but he died before the trial finished. In 2002 the Congress of the USA definitively recognized Meucci as the true inventor of the telephone. 





More information: 

Wednesday 25th - January -2012


Today Cristina Blanco has been with us and Juan Carlos, Laura Bustamante, Andrea, Carmen, Yolanda Abad and Isabel have done the make up exam from the first Term.
We have had less homework today, I think is better because the ones who were doing the make up exam would be behind us and would have a lot of work. Well some students have finished yesterday's homework and others have started today's homework.

Today's homework has been to read points E about the second industrial revolution and point F about the consequences of the industrial revolution to do exercises 7 and 8 and also to read point 2 about the new class-based society and do exercise 9. During the class Cristina has checked our dialogues for Friday and she has also checked her computer with Angel because she though her computer had a virus send in an false email from Bea Yuste.


In the second industrial revolution new sources of energy appeared like electricity that was possible by the invention of the Dynamo, thanks to the alternator electricity could be transport to make machines work in factories, to illuminate, for trains and tramways, communications... and the Oil that became the main energy source of invents as the diesel and explosion engines.
And the two main fabrics which developed were metalworking industry to produce aluminium and stainless steel and the chemical industry that produced cement, concrete, pesticides, chemical products, dyes, pharmaceutical products...

Telegraph
But the consequences of this industrial revolution were that mass production led to more access to products, massive exploitation of resources as if they were unlimited, more pollution, immigration from the countryside to the cities, acceleration of the urbanization process and cyclical crisis related to overproduction in industries which remembered me to the one we are suffering now.





In this period bourgeoisie became the owners of the industries and enterprises. It was divided in:
High bourgeoisie: bankers, owners of big industries
Middle bourgeoisie: civil servants, merchants...
Petty bourgeoisie: shopkeepers, clerks...
They became the predominant group and their way of life became a model for the rest of the population.


And the proletariats which was the majority of the society, they had to work for a salary to survive, their life was hard because they had to work 12-14 hours a day and all the members of the family had to work to survive.

Well I hope my mates had passed their make up exam and you Paqui recovered soon but with caution, you can a worse injury. Bye see you tomorrow.
Proletarian worker of a fabric

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

What do flutes have to do with the Industrial Revolution?


Thomas Lot´s 18th-century flutes

Financing is one of the most important problems inventors must face. There is a curious story about James Watt and his steam engine. Watt needed a lot of money to finance his experiments with steam engines and he decided to use a not very legal way to get money: he forged flutes. In the 18th century the best flutes were the ones made by Thomas Lot, a French flute-maker. Lot was someone similar to the Stradivari family in the production of violins and his flutes were famous in all Europe and very expensive. James Watt decided to forge Lot´s flutes. He built normal flutes and put Thomas Lot´s signature on them with a false ink pad. His forged flutes gave him money enough to go on with his experiments and create the most decisive invention of the First Industrial Revolution. Sometimes progress chooses very strange paths to come.

More about James Watt and his counterfeit: 


About Thomas Lot: 

Monday, January 23, 2012

PowerPoint presentation for Unit 4

Here you have the PowerPoint presentation to complete your notes about Unit 4. It includes all the contents about the Demographic and the Agricultural Revolution, the two stages of the Industrial Revolution and their consequences, the new class society, the history of the Labour Movement and the political ideologies that appeared with the objective of improving the workers´conditions. Have a look on the presentation. Cristina will use it in the classroom to check the exercises and show you some interesting things. 



Monday, 23th January


Source:

Today, Paqui hasn't come, because she is recovering.

We have been with the teacher of duty, Manuel José, music's teacher. The first thing that he did was pass lis, to see if we were all.

After this, we started to do the homework that Paqui placed on the blog last day. During the hour, while we doing the homework, we have been speaking, but in a normal tone. Some of the students have finished the homework, but the other students, have missed the last one or the last two exercices of the book.

The next day, on Wednesday, we will have class with Cristina Blanco, and we will start the point D) The First Industrial Revolution, and perhaps we will check the exercices of today.

Also some students, have make up exam of the first term.

This is all for today.

Bye, Bye!!

Saturday, January 21, 2012

Activities for next week


Industrial Manchester from Kersal Moor, painting by William Wylde (1851)


Here you have the work you will have to do next week: 

MONDAY, 23RD
- Student in charge of the journal: Laura Bustamante 

- Answer the following questions, which correspond to point 1B2 of the outline of the unit (Development of the First Industrial Revolution): 

1.      Explain what the main energy sources used during the First Industrial Revolution were.
2.      What was the factory system?
3.      What industries developed during the First Industrial Revolution?
4.  Explain the main inventions that allowed the development of textile industry. What were the consequences of these inventions?
5.    Explain the main innovations inventions that allowed the development of iron and steel industry. What were the consequences of these inventions?
6.   Explain the main improvements made in transport. Why were these changes considered to be revolutionary?

- For homework, read section "Development of industrial capitalism" on page 27 and do activities 4,5 and 6 on page 31.

WEDNESDAY, 25TH
Remember that the students who didn´t pass the first term will have to do the make-up exam on this day. 

- Student in charge of the journal: Alejandro Torrillas

- Read point E on page 27 ("The Second Industrial Revolution"), which corresponds to section 1C of the outline of the unit, and do exercises 7 and 8 on page 31.

- Read point 2 on page 28 ("The new class-based society"), which corresponds to section 2 of the outline of the unit, and do exercise 9 on page 31. 

THURSDAY, 26TH
- Student in charge of the journal: Ana Isabel Lucas

- Check with Cristina Blanco the activities you did on Monday and Wednesday. She will use a PowerPoint presentation to show you images and schemes to help you complete the information of the activities. You will have the PowerPoint presentation available on the blog in the following days. 

- For homework, read section 3 A ("The first workers associations") on pages 28 and 29 and do activities 10,11 and 12 on page 31. 

If you have any questions or doubts, please use the blog to ask. I´ll include some extra explanations here and I hope you read them and complete your notes. Cristina Blanco will be with you on Wednesday and Thursday and she will make her best to help you. Please, help her doing your work and having a good behaviour. Have a good week. 

Friday, January 20, 2012

2011-2012 Challenges. Number 16

Sorry for the delay. This week´s questions are related to some of the inventions which contributed to the First Industrial Revolution. 


James Watt´s first steam engine (1776)

QUESTION 1

James Watt is considered to be the inventor of the steam engine. In fact, he improved some pre-existing engines, such as Thomas Savery´s water pump or Thomas Newcomen´s atmospheric engine. In 1606, at the beginning of  the 17th century a Navarrese military man, musician and cosmographer patented the first machine to use steam power. He also invented a diving suit, which was tested in the Pisuerga River. Who was this Hispanic inventor?

QUESTION 2

James Watt drew also inspiration from Denis Papin´s inventions. What was the most important contribution of this French inventor?

QUESTION 3

The Spinning Jenny was one of the most important inventions that contributed to the mechanization of textile industry. Who invented it? Why was this machine called Jenny?


Spinning Jenny
QUESTION 4

When and where did the factory system appear?

QUESTION 5

What were the Rainhill Trials? What was the realtion of this event with the history of transport?

Thursday, January 19, 2012

19th of January, 2012


Today, Paqui hasn't come to the high school because of her sprain on her foot. Some people have thought that this event meant no Social Sciences lessons, and they have gone away. But then, Cristina has come into the classroom and she has said she's going to teach us this subject until Paqui arrives. She has been surprised because of the few people there were in the class. She has asked the date of the make-up exam to Andrea and Juan Carlos and they have decided to do it on Wednesday 25th. Later, Cristina has talked about Paqui's accident and about the homework she has prepared us to do while she's absent. Then, she has tried to show us the powerpoint we had to continue watching but there wasn't Internet connexion and she didn't have the powerpoint saved on her computer. Cristina has gone out of the class for a while and we have been doing the summaries of points B, C and D (the first part) about The Demographic Revolution, The Agricultural Revolution and The First Industrial Revolution. This last point is about the inventions, innovations and the new organization of work during the 18th century due to high demands for all kind of products. Afterwards, Cristina has told us that she might be with us on Wednesday and she's going to check if we have done the summaries. She has also told us that we have to pay attention to the blog (specially on Sundays) because she's going to write the classwork and homework we have to do during the week.
That's all. Bye!

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

18th January 2012

Today in Social Sciences at the beginning of the class some of us have asked Paqui about her foot and she has said to us: "I am"
Then Paqui has said to us that she has left some homework for us on Monday but the guardia teacher hasn't given anything to us.
Later Alejandro has read about the demographic revolution and some of the causes were less wars, hygiene and medicine improved, people were better fed, reduction of mortality rates, a strong population growth and this caused a high demand for all kind of products.
Paqui has explained us the origin of vaccines that consists of taking the liquid of a bubo and this liquid was introduced in some children and these children become inmunes.This vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner.
Then Paqui has a shown us a graphic the birth and mortality rates and we have been talking about the life expentacy and Paqui has said us that the life expectancy of Spain is about 84 years.
After that Mª Luz has read about agricultural revolution that consists of innovations to produce more, some of them were:
- Many communal lands were enclosed, to explain this Paqui has used Rebeca and Silvia
- Introduction of the Norfolk four-field system crop rotation that was a system that didn't leave any part fallow.Every year the position of the crops change, and rotate. In one part they cultivated clover in other wheat, in other barley and in the other turnips.
- Selective breeding
All these changes led to an increase of production and a surplus of farmers.



Some new words that we have learned today have been:
-smallpox that means viruela
-bubo that means ampolla
-enclosure that means cercamiento
-graze that means pastar
-manure that means estiercol
-straw that means paja
-flour that means harina
-iron plough that means arado de hierro
-seed drill that means sembradora mecánica
-thresing machine that means trilladora
-clover that means trébol
-turnip that means nabo
-barley that means cebada
-milkmade that means lechera
-antibody that means anticuerpo

Finally a fire alarm has rung and we have to go out of the high school because it was a fire drill.
That was all for today bye see you tomorrow

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

Mistakes on the crossword



There are some mistakes on the crossword I gave you for homework (page 24). There are some definitions missing and the order of the  rest of the definitions is wrong. Here you have the corrections: 


ACROSS


-You have to add the definition to complete number 7: Those who supported Carlos Mª Isidro during the First Carlist War. 


- You have to change the order of the rest of the definitions: definition number 7 refers to number 8 squares, definition number 8 corresponds to number 9 squares and so on.


DOWN:


You have to add the definition to complete number 3:  Charles IV´s prime minister, who reached power due to his special friendship with the queen.


You have to change the order of the rest of the definitions: definition number 3 refers to number 4 squares, definition number 4 corresponds to number 5 squares and so on.


I hope everything fits now.

Monday, January 16, 2012

16 January 2012

Today, we haven't had lesson because Paqui has had a sprain on one of her feet. WHAT A PITY! Mª Ángeles has been with us. She thought some people had to do the make up exam, but they didn't. Paqui sent an e-mail to Yolanda Abad and she told her that they would fix the date of the exam next day. So we have done some exercises of different subjects that we had for homework, and Mª Ángeles has helped some people with Maths exercises because we are having the exam on Wednesday.




SOURCE: www.reencuentrobaloncesto.blogspot.com/2010/05/esguinces-2-reencuentro-0.html
We hope Paqui gets well soon!:)

Thursday, January 12, 2012

2011-2012 Challenges. Number 15

These are this week´s questions. They are related to the causes of the Industrial Revolution. We´ll study some of the contents of this challenge next week. You should participate.


QUESTION 1
One of the causes of the changes in the way of manufacturing products was population growth. In the 18th century population increased considerably due to different factors, such as medical improvements. What was the most important advance in medicine during the 18th century? What doctor was the responsible for this important discovery?


QUESTION 2
What relation to Question 1´s discovery did the Spanish doctors Francisco Xavier Balmis and José Salvany have? Why are they so important in the history of world medicine?




Doctor Xavier Balmis

QUESTION 3
The picture below shows a turnip. Why was Viscount Charles Thownsend called "Turnip" Thownsend? What was his role in the 18th century British Agricultural Revolution?



QUESTION 4
What was Joseph Foljambe´s role in the agricultural innovations that contributed to the increase of production?


QUESTION 5

A famous music band of the 70´s got its name from an important 18th-century British agriculturist. Some of their albums are Aqualung and Too Old to Rock´n Roll: Too Young to die. What is the name of this band? What were the main contributions to agriculture of the man who gave name to this group?


QUESTION 6
What was Robert Bakewell and Thomas Coke contribution to stockbreeding?




P.S: I´ll include the source of the first picture when you solve the challenge.

12TH THURSDAY, JANUARY OF 2012






Today in social sciences Paqui has started with the explanation of the decrees of dissolution of the Cortes. She has explained this with people of the class, for example Ana is Isabella II and Javi is Narváez and with a powerpoint. Then Paqui has done a scheme about Isabella II´s reign, in this scheme we could see the three stages of Isabella´s reign:


  • Moderate Decade (1844-1854).

  • Progressive Biennium (1854-1856).

  • Alternation between moderates and the liberal Union (1856-1868).
Also Paqui has explained that Narváez was angry with Isabella because she could be more discreet with her lovers.(The person of the picture, above this text, is Francisco de Asis of Borbon, Isabella's). Yolanda R. has participated giving us her opinion about this.

Later, Andrea has checked exercise 25 of unit 3 about the Moderate Decade.

For homework we have to do the crossword that Silvia has given us and we have finished unit 3.

After this, Paqui has given us a small sheet with the introduction of the new unit: unit 4. This unit is about the Industrial Revolution and the Labour Movement.

Mari Luz has read the first part of point 1 of the book and Paqui has given us more homework, we have to do a small scheme about this.

DEFINITIONS

Concordat: Agreement signed between a State and the Holy See and it regulates religious relationships between them.

Industrial Revolution: a deep change in the way of producing products, which led to important changes in economy and society..

NEW WORDS

Income Tax Return._IRPF

To trust._confiar

To mumble._ murmurar

Discreet._discreto

Outdated._desfasado, anticuado, caducado

Shared sovereignity._ soberanía compartida.

Holy See._ Santa Sede

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 11, 2012



Today in social sciences class, at first it was Enrique´s birthday so we have sung the classic Happy Birthday to him, then Paqui has started to explain the unit with a powerpoint. Silvia has gone to the althia room to get her pendrive, but it wasn´t there, so Paqui has explained the eclesiastical confiscations, made by the liberals |Mendizábal (1835-1836)|, in which the properties of the Church were nationalized and sold at auction to get money to finance the Carlist War. Paqui has told us this with an example with people in the class, after she has told us that the lands were bought by the bourgeois because the peasants couldn´t have access to them, because most of them were illiterate, so they couldn´t read the posters in which it was. What the Church did against it was to excommunicate all the people who bought the lands that the bourgeois got.
Other things that the Liberal Revolution changed was the suppression of seigneurial rights and feudalism , guilds and interior customs, Promotion of free trade and industry, and in 1837 a new constitution was written, but it was less advanced than the one of 1812, because it had census suffrage, and the king got the suspensive veto.
General Espartero was proclaimed the regent of Spain in 1840, but his post lasted only three years until 1843, because he was very authoritarian. So in 1843 he resigned and the Cortes decided to give the power to Isabella, who was 13 years old, was of age and she was proclaimed queen.
Isabella II reingned between 1844 and 1868. She always preferred the moderates to rule and she called them to govermment in 1844. This consolidated Spain as a liberal State.
Ana and Javi have performed a scene about it where Ana was Isabella II and Javi was her prime minister, Olózaga, who was progressive and he wanted a constituional monarchy but the bell rang and we haven't had time to explain it well.
Some words that we didn´t understand were:
- Communicate: Comulgar, Excommunicate: Excomulgar.
- Morganatic marriage: Matrimonio monagático.
- Tariffs: Araceles.
So that´s all we have done in the lesson, so see you!
Here you can see Isabel II of Spain. Here you have the link of the image:

Monday, January 9, 2012

CARLIST WAR AND VERGARA AGREEMENT

Today, it has been a really cold day. We've started the lesson with Paqui who has reminded us the homework which she had given us for homework at Christmas.
We've started talking about Mª Cristina's Regency (1833-1840)
And we've copied a scheme about the regencies divided in Mª Cristina's Regency and Espartero's Regency.
After the scheme, we've checked exercise 22, but later Paqui's said: "Who wants to check?" And Enrique has checked it.

Then, we've reminded that in the Carlist War, Carlists fought against Isabelinos or Cristinos.
Paqui has told us which territories the Carlists occupied and General Gómez tried to spread it to the South of Spain.
The Carlists controlled some rural areas in the Basque Provinces, Navarre, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia, but they couldn't take any important city or extend the war to the rest of Spain.
The war finished with the Vergara Agreement (1839) signed by Espartero (liberal) and Maroto (carlist).
In 1840 General Cabrera escaped to France from Spain.

Vergara Agreement
-The war finished.
-The Carlists got:
  • The fueros of Nagvarre and the Basque Provinces were preserved.
  • The Carlists' soldiers could join the liberal army with the same rank.
Then, Yolanda Rubio has checked exercise 23.
After this, Paqui has explained us the differences between moderates and progressives: both of them were liberals.
  • Moderates wanted to enlarge moncharchs' powers and reduce citizens' rights. They were always supported by monarchs.
  • Progressives wanted to reduce monarchs' powers and enlarge citizens' rights.They always reached power after popular uprisings and military uprisings because they didn't have monarchs' support.
Then Silvia has checked exercise 24 which was about the Liberal Revolution in Spain.
Paqui has explained us the causes of the progressives' uprisings were the same: bad harvests, high prices of food...
Led by the progressive party. They reached power after several popular uprisings in the summer of 1835.
Paqui has reminded us wars and uprisings always started in summer because with the heat, people is more irritable.
Reforms:

  • Main goal: End with the Ancien Régime.
  • Suppression of:Seigneurial rights
Feudalism
Interior customs
Guilds
Inquisition

Afterwards, Paqui has explained us that if a noble had debts, he had to tie his lands in the future to the people who had lent him the money; but if a bourgeois was in the same situation, the people who had lent the money, confiscated his lands, or part of them. This privilege was abolished during the Liberal Revolution and this was called untying.
  • Eclesiastical confiscation of Mendizábal.Government needed money and they confiscated his lands.
Vocabulary:
  • It's worth it- vale la pena
  • Hug- abrazo
  • Camarades in arms- Compañeros de armas
  • Untying- Desvinculación
  • Tying- Ligar/Unir algo
  • To Confiscate- Expropiar/Confiscar
  • Eclesiastical confiscation- Desamortización eclesiástica
  • Nun- monja

Well, and the bell's rang. So the lesson has finished and the break has started.



    Espartero
    http://www.terra.es/personal2/juanjeda/asocia_h_3_r.html

    Maroto
    http://documentacionhistoriabachillerato.blogspot.com/2011/03/imagen-el-general-maroto_13.html