Wednesday, October 31, 2012

31st October 2012

Hello everybody,
Today we have the Social Science exam of unit 1 of the first term. Today the class started at eight o’clock to have more time to do the exam, but not all the people came to this hour.
    The first question was about the Modern Era, the thing they have in common and their main representatives. The Modern Era is the period of history between the Middle Ages and the Contemporary Era. This Era finished with the French Revolution and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The common thing was that the privileged people (nobles and clergy) lost part of their influence and kings took advantage of this and tried to reinforce their authority. Monarchs created professional bureaucracies and permanent armies, giving birth to modern States, first the Authoritarian Monarchies ( 15th-16th centuries) and their representative were the Catholic Monarchs, and later with the with Absolute Monarchy ( 17th century)  and their representatives were Louis XIV.
   The second question was about the Age of discovery and their main consequences. The Europeans lunched several expeditions to find new trade routes to Asia and this led to the” discovery “of a big amount  of unknown territories. These discoveries had important consequences:
- Beginning of globalization process: relationship between different parts of the world, which shared products, people and knowledge:
            * Contact with other people of the world was established: new civilization were discovered
( Aztecs, Mayas and Incas ). But this contact meant a demographic catastrophe for the indigenous people: several European diseases were lethal for them and millions of indigenous died during the first years of colonization. The dead were replaced by black slaves from Africa.
           * A richer and more variet diet sperad with the new products that arrived from America: tomatoes, pepper, potatoes, corn, ... The Europeans also introduced new products and animals in America: cereals, sugarcane, cows, horses, oxen...
- Extraordinary progress in sciense: geography and cartography, navigation and natural sciense.
- Portugal and Castile created overseas empires and started exploiting their colonies of their own benefit. Europe established its supremacy over the rest of the world.
   The third question was about choosing  4 words of 8 and define them.
   The fourth question was about The beginning of secularization process.
   The fifth was about to complete the gaps with the works of some painters, sculptors and architectors. And also she put the works and we had to say the persons that do this.
   And the sixth was about true or false, and correct the sentences that were false.
That´s all, I thing taht the exam wasn´t difficult if you have studied.
Well, gays have a good wekeend and we´ll see on Monday.

Monday, October 29, 2012

29th October 2012

29th October

Hello everyone!
Today, in social sciences, at the beginning Paqui has said us that 18 people didn't do the exercise of the blog about reading quotes of enlightened philosophers and every person who didn't do it have a negative. After that we have started the lesson about Enlightened philosophers.

Paqui has written a scheme on the blackboard that we had to complete reading the page 6 in the book about Enlightened philosophers. After we have read that page, we have completed the scheme, starting with the "Political Thinking" (criticism to Absolutism). There were three important philosophers:

-JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU: He defended two things:
-The Social Contract: It was an agreement which people and the governor sign to preserve social order.
-General will: When they choose their representatives.

He defended the division of power into three institutions (executive, legislative, judicial) to avoid abuse of power.
-VOLTAIRE: He defended:
-The limitation of the power of the king by the Parliament.
-Universal Tax System (end of privileges).
-The Religious tolerance (no religions superior to others).
Then we have continued with "Economic Thinking":
Agriculture is the main economic activity and the basics of other economic activities. They also supported free trade, free industry and were against the intervention of the State in economy.
(Adam Smith) The State doesn't had to intervene in economy and economy has to be base in the law of SUPPLY AND DEMAND.
Then someone has commented that he didn't see the screen due to the light. Then Paqui has taken the curtains and she wanted to put it on the windows but the curtain was very short to cover all the windows and we have continued with the lesson. 
Finally Paqui has given us time to review the exam of the next Wednesday. After Paqui has said us that the day of the exan we can came before 8:15 like every day because Paqui is going to come at 8:00 to High School if we want to have more time to do the exam.

-GENERAL WILL: Voluntad general
-ON SOMEONE'S BEHALF: En nombre de...
-TO REMOVE: Quitar
-SOCIAL CONTRACT: Contrato social
-WITTY: Agudo
-CLEVER: Listo
-PHYSIOCRACY: Fisiocracia


Saturday, October 27, 2012

Interactive activities to review for Wednesday´s exam

Here you have some interactive activities made with HotPotatoes software to review about some of the contents of next Wednesday´s exam. They refer to the 17th century and Baroque art. If you want to check your knowledge about these contents, please click on the images below and start. You can also leave a comment about how your final score has been. 

Friday, October 26, 2012

More about the Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia comes from Greek and it means "circular knowledge or learning". Prior to the French Encyclopedia, there were some other projects of compiling knowledge in the past. The first of these projects was made during the Roman Empire by Pliny the Elder, who wrote Historia Naturalis. In the 7th century Saint Isidore of Seville, a Visigothic bishop and wiseman, wrote the Etymologiae or Origenes, a 20 volume work that included all the knowledge of that period. The Chinese also wrote their own encyclopedic book in the 15th century: the Yongle Encyclopedia had 11,095 handwritten volumes and it was written between 1403 and 1408. Only another copy was made. After a fire in 1557 the Chinese Emperor ordered a third copy. The surviving volumes (less than 400) are in libraries and private collections.

In 1728 Ephraim Chambers, a British publisher, edited Cyclopedia: An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. This book was the direct precedent of the French Encyclopedia. André Le Breton, a French publisher, wanted to translate the Cyclopedia and hired Denis Diderot and Jean Rond D´Alembert, but they completely changed the original project, because they asked different scientists and thinkers of their time to write articles about very different topics. The Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts and Crafts)  became a completely original work. Denis Diderot wrote in the article about the Encyclopedia that its objective was "to change the way people think". That´s why the Encyclopedia has been considered one of the Enlightenment capital books, where the new spirit of this intellectual movement (the use of Reason) was better expressed. The most important enlightened philosophers wrote articles in the Encyclopedia (Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesquieu), but also some other important experts, such as the Baron D´Holbach, Quesnay, Turgot and La Chapelle. Louis de Jaucourt was the most prolific author: he wrote more than 17,000 articles about different subjects. 

The edition of the Encyclopedia was controversial, due to its attacks to superstitions, Catholicism and in favour for religious tolerance.  In 1759 the Encyclopedia was included in the Index of Forbidden Books, because its authors praised Protestant thinkers and defied Catholic dogma by classifying Religion as a branch of philosophy and not as the last resource of knowledge and morale.

All the modern and contemporary Enciclopediae come from the French Encyclopédie, even Wikipedia, a collaborative project students like so much ;)

Here you have some links to explore the French Encyclopédie on line: 

26th October

26th October

Hello everyone!
Today, at the beginning, Paqui has said to me that it was my turn of doing the journal. She has said that many of the classmates don’t participate and the classmates who participate only write “Good Journal” “You don’t have mistakes” Paqui said that we have to write more things, like our opinion and things like that and for that she has put one extra exercise on the blog for all the classmates. Consits of reading several quotes about some enlightened philosphers and giving our opinion about it. .She has put a two interactive maps of the triangular trade and the trade of slaves to practice for the exam.

After that, we have started to correct the exercises. Carmen has corrected the first one about what Enlightenment was. It’s the culmination of the Secularization process in 15th, and an intellectual movement that questioned the Ancient Regime principles) and on what it's based (It was based on the use of Reason as the best way to know the world and transform it ) Then, Fernando Marcos has corrected the second one. It was about the precedents of the Enlightenment whichwere:

  • John Locke: Critized Absolutism defended the division of powers and the role of the State as the guarantor of citizens’ rights.

  • Isaac Newton: He set up the Scientific method based on observing and checking facts and he discovered the Law of Universal Gravitation. 

And after, Andrea has corrected the last exercise. It was about the main features about Enlightenment. Paqui has explained us one by one all the features:

-Absolute faith in reason as the best way to understand the world.
- Injection of everything that couldn’t be explained through Reason. (They were against THE AUTHORITY PRINCIPLE that was making things only because this was a tradition)
-Education as the best way to improve the living conditions of the people (There are less unemployed educated people than non educated people)
-Religious tolerance (No religion was superior, reason was enough to establish a morality code to determine how to behave)
-Criticism of absolutism and the estates society and defense of freedom and equality of all human beings.
-Elitist movement, reserved to educated people.

We have also talked about the beginning of feminism that started at the end of the 18th Century.

During the French revolution Olympe de Gourges wrote THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE WOMAN AND CITIZEN  in 1792

Mary Wollstonecraft made THE VINDICATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN in 1792

And finally we have talked about "The Encyclopedia" created by Denis Diderot and Jean Rond D'Alambert. They compiled all the knowledge of their time the first edition appeared in 1751 with 35 volumes. Finally, Paqui has told us to do the exercise 7 because it contained all of this. We have finished it in the class and Raquel Ortiz has corrected it.


-Guarantor: Garante
-Injection: Rechazo
-Authority principle: Principio de autoridad.
-Survey: Cuestionario
-Defender: Defensor
-Protector: Protector
-To trust: Confiar, tener confianza
-Worry: Preocupación
-Mankind: Humanidad
-Employe rate: Tasa de desempleo
-To be fed up of: Estar harta de
-Vindication: Reivindicación
-Elitism: Elitismo
-To compile: Recopilar

I hope you like my journal, have a good weekend, and study for the SOCIAL SCIENCES EXAM!:)

Thursday, October 25, 2012

Dare to think!

Tomorrow we´ll study the main features of Enlightenment and we´ll learn that the enlightened philosophers trusted Reason as the best way to reach knowledge and education as the only way to transform the world in a better place. This is how Immanuel Kant defined Enlightenment: 

"Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one’s understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Sapere Aude! “Have courage to use your own understanding!”–that is the motto of enlightenment"

The enlightened philosophers wrote a lot of essays about the most basic worries of mankind: the search for happiness, the unalienable rights everybody has from birth, the best government, ethics and morality, the elimination of privileges, religion... They also reflected about the best way of organizing a society they didn´t like. I ´ve selected several quotes of some of the most important enlightened philosophers. I think these quotes contain ideas worth be shared. Many of these quotes belong to Voltaire, a very witty thinker. Here you have some of his ideas about tolerance: 

"I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"

"No opinion is worth burning your neighbour for"

"Discord is the great ill of mankind; and tolerance is the only remedy for it."

"Love truth, but pardon error"

And this is what he wrote about death penalty: 

"It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets"

"The punishment of criminals should be of use; when a man is hanged he is good for nothing"

"It is better to risk saving a guilty person than to condemn an innocent one"

And this one refers to the fact of being aware on one´s ignorance:

"The more I read, the more I meditate; and the more I acquire, the more I am enabled to affirm that I know nothing"

Please, read these quotes, choose the one you prefer and explain why: 

  • To be is to do (Imanuel Kant)
  • As long as people believe in absurdities they will continue to commit atrocities (Voltaire)
  • If man makes himself a worm he must not complain when he is trodden on (Kant)
  • We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education.(Rousseau)
  • To become truly great, one has to stand with people, not above them (Montesquieu)
  • Common sense is not so common (Voltaire)
  • It is too difficult to think nobly when one thinks only of earning a living. (Rousseau)
  • The tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a citizen in a democracy (Montesquieu)
  • Men are equal; it is not birth but virtue that makes the difference. (Voltaire)
  • Always recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as means to your end.(Kant)
  • No problem can stand the assault of sustained thinking (Voltaire)
  • Every man is guilty of all the good he didn't do (Voltaire)
  • True greatness consists in the use of a powerful understanding to enlighten oneself and others (Voltaire)
  • The true triumph of reason is that it enables us to get along with those who do not possess it (Voltaire)
  • The instruction we find in books is like fire. We fetch it from our neighbours, kindle it at home, communicate it to others, and it becomes the property of all. (Voltaire)
  • Once the people begin to reason, all is lost (Voltaire)
  • Whatever you do, stamp out abuses, and love those who love you.(Voltaire)

Some interactive maps about triangular and slave trade

Here you have the links to some interactive maps I´ve found to learn more about international trade and slave trade: 

- A simplified map of triangular trade: 

- A more detailed map of triangular trade: 

- Triangular trade routes: this map includes an exercise to make sure that you´ve understood the products exchanged between every continent and the others: 

- African slave trade: on this map you can see where the black slaves came from mainly and what their main destinations in the Americas were: 

- Slave trade of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: on this map you can see the territories in the Americas with the highest percentage of slaves: 


Today Paqui has tries to turn on the whiteboard but she hasn’t done it didn’t operate. So today Paqui has done the lesson without the power point.

At the first of the lessons we have correct the exercises that Paqui ordered yesterday. A classmate has come to the blackboard to correct it. The first exercise said: “Explain what the Ancien Régime estate-based society was like and draw a pyramid representing its situation”. So he has drawn it and Paqui has corrected and she has added more information.
                                                          PEASANTS (80%)

Then other classmate has corrected the exercise 3 (Pag 11 of the book). The question said: “Why did the population increase in the 18th century? How did this population increase affect the economic activities?” The answer is: The population grew considerably because there were less wars, less big epidemics, new crops were introduced (corn and potato) and mortality decreased. This occur after the War of Spanish Succession and the Treaty of Utrecht. This population increased led to a bigger demand for all type of products. Prices increased, economy activities develop, monarchies protected trade companies, trade increased…

And Paqui has drawn at the blackboard how the TRIANGULAR TRADE is:
File:Triangle trade2.png

Then other classmate has read a point (of the page 5) called ENLIGHTEMENT, and Paqui has explained us. And she has copied a scheme of PROCESS OF SECULARIZATION and we had to copy it.

   15th Century                    16th                       17th                          18th…….... PRESENT
      Humanism                Protestant             Scientific       ENLIGHTENME      
                                     Reformation          Revolution                                          
                                                              (Empiricism and                                                                   Rationalism)             Reason
                                                                                            As the best way to reach
                                                                                            knowledge. The lights of reason
                                                                                            used to illuminate the darkness of the world

As every day we have added more vocabulary in our glossaries like: supportive ( solidario), Triangular Trade (comercio triangular), precedents (antecedents), quate (cita), Century of Lights/Age of Reason (siglo de las luces), brave (valiente), Dare to know! (¡atrevete a saber!)… 

 Finally Paqui has ordered us the exercises 4, 5 and 6 of the page 11.

Only one week away for the exam...

 ... so good lucky for everyone!!!!

Monday, October 22, 2012

JOURNAL 22nd October 2012

Today is my turn to do the journal!! 

First Paqui has spoken to us about the date of the exam, because some students disagree with it.Then we have copied the index of Unit 2; THE 18th CENTURY: THE CRISIS OF THE ACIEN RÉGIME AND THE BOURBONS IN SPAIN.


The index was divided intofour different parts.

Paqui has said that the ENLIGTHENMENT was very important in this period.
Then she has said thatsince today we'll the 4th ESO book, then we have started reading the first point of the unit: THE ANCIENT RÉGIME : MAIN FEATURES.
The teacher has explained this point with a scheme on the blackboard that includes:,r:2,s:0,i:72&tx=112&ty=52


-The definition of Ancient Régime: features of European societies between the 15th and 18th Centuries.

-The origin of that expression: French revolutionaries used it for the first time to define all the features they wanted to eliminate.

-The summary also includes:
  • Politics: Absolute Monarchy,the justification of the absolute power of monarchs was that it came from God (but it didn´t)
  • Society: Estate-based society, there were two groups of population: privileged (nobles and clergy) and underprivileged (peasants, workers and bourgeoisie) they were the 90/95 % of the population.



I have took this photo from a Paqui's presentation, so I don't have a link for these photo.
  • Economy: Subsistence economy, based on the three-yearsystem of crop rotation.

After to complete the diagram Paqui has said that we have become to a new-feudal age, because there is some privileged people and a lot of underprivileged people without power.

I've done these pyramid so it is not on the internet, there is not any link.


After that, Paqui has given us some exercises to do at home: she has written one on the blackboard and the other is exercise 3 of page 11 of the book.

  • Compulsory - Obligatorio
  • Politics - Science
  • Policy -  Specific way of doing things in administration
  • Police - Policía
  • Get rid of - librarse, deshacerse de...
  • class - based society - sociedad de clase
  • estate - estamento
  • state - estado


Presentation about the 18th century

Here you have the presentation we´re going to use to study the first part of this unit. See you on Wednesday!

Sunday, October 21, 2012

The Reapers´ War and the Catalan anthem


Corpus of Blood, 1640

As we studied last Friday, the Count-Duke of Olivares´ projects for all the territories of the Hispanic Monarchy provoked generalized revolts, which were more serious in Catalonia and Portugal. In Catalonia the revolt started in January 1640, when the population revolted against the royal order of accomodating 10,000 soldiers. The protests, headed by peasants, were strongly repressed by the royal army. Armed peasants occupied the city of Barcelona, killed the lieutenant of the royal army and the Generalitat broke up with the Monarchy. The Count -Duke of Olivares planned the invasion of Catalonia and the representatives of the Generalitat contacted Louis XIII, the king of France. Although France had always been Aragon´s enemy, Louis XIII decided to support the Catalans in order to take advantage  of political instability in the Hispanic Monarchy and open a new front against Philip IV (remember, "my enemy´s enemy is my friend")

The Reapers´ War  lasted for almost 19 years. It ended in 1659, with the signature of the Peace of the Pyrenees:  Catalonia lost the territories of Roussillon and Cerdanya and a marriage alliance was established: Louis XIV would marry María Teresa of Austria, Philip IV´s daughter and Charles II´s sister. This marriage would be decisive some years later, when Charles II died without direct successors. The French branch of his family got rights to the Hispanic Monarchy, but Charles II´s testament wadn´t accepted by the Habsburg branch and other European powers. 

The Reapers´ War belongs to the events Catalans consider part of their national history of fight for independence. In fact, the Catalan anthem takes its name and music from those events. Its´called  Els Segadors (The Reapers), because peasanst had an important role in the uprising against the royal troops and the beginnig of the Corpus of Blood , in June 1640, was related to an incident with a reaper. The music of the anthem was composed by Francesc Alió in 1892, drawing inspiration from a 17th century folk song. The lyrics were composed by Emili Guanyavents in 1899, for a song contest organized by Unió Catalanista, a political group which demanded self-government (not independence) for Catalonia. Guanyavents draw inspiration from a 17th century popular ballad collected by Manuel Milà i Fontanals on a book called Romancerillo Catalán. On the following video you can listen to the old version, with the lyrics of the old ballad compiled by Milà i Fontanals: 

The song was adopted by the Catalan Parliament as anthem in 1993. This is the modern version, with Emili Guanyavents´ lyrics:

If you want to read the translation in Spanish, click here.

And here you have the score:

Friday, October 19, 2012

19th October, 2012

 Hello everybody!
Today Paqui has said to me that it was my turn of doing the journal. Paqui has said to Gema that she had few mistakes in her journal and we should review the journal before posting it. Paqui has switched the projector on, but it hasn't worked ,so we have started reviewing the contents of the last day about Philip IV and his main valido the Count-Duke of Olivares.

Then we have been talking about the Union of Arms project. It was a project of imposing the Castilian laws to all the kingdoms of the Monarchy and making them contribute to the war expenses. Paqui has been trying to make the projector work but it hasn't worked. Fernando has asked Paqui if it was necessary to be Catholic in the Union of Arms project and yes, with the Union of Arms project all the territories belonging to the Hispanic Monarchy had to be Catholic.

Gema has asked Paqui about the exam, but she always asks in Spanish and Paqui has said that we have to try to speak in English because nobody is perfect and everybody makes mistakes but we have to try to learn.
 jajajaja! :)
 Then we have continued with the Union of Arms project, this provoked a generalized revolt in all the territories of the Monarchy, but it was more serious in Catalonia and Portugal. The war of Catalonia with the help of France against the Hispanic Monarchy is known as the Reapers' War. It lasted until the signature of the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659). Catalonia lost the territories of Roussillon and Cerdaña.

Javi has gone to call Guillermo to fix the projector but, he hasn't found him.
Later, we have seen that in the Treaty of Lisbon, Portugal and all its Empire definitely became independent. The Thirty Year's War (1618-1648) was another fact of Philip IV´s government, the end of this war meant the end of the Hispanic Monarchy hegemony in Europe, after their defeat at Rocroi.

When Philip IV died, the heir was his son Charles II (The Hexed) who suffered a lot because he had problems that medicine couldn't heal because his chromosomes were "xxy", tried to make children ,but he couldn't, he had a very small penis. All of us have laughed at this! He was lame, he was drooling. He was like a big child. He didn't speak until he was 8 and he didn't walk until the age of 4. What a pity! :(
Charles II.
As you can see he was really pretty!
He tried to rule and he worked a lot! He didn't have children and when he died he left a testament saying that his heir would be Philip of Anjou (a French person), Louis XIV's grandson.

People disagree with this heir so a war started. Other people of Europe wanted Archduke Charles of Austria as the heir. And the same in Aragon, as Louis XIV's represented absolutism, people feared for him and supported Archduke Charles of Austria.

Then, when there were five minutes left, we have decided that the exam will be in two weeks, on Wednesday 31st. I disagree with this because we have another exam on wednesday...but well... we have to accept it!

Here you have some words I have added to my glossary today:
-ally: aliado
-anthem: himno
-Reapers' War: guerra del segador
-reward: recompensa
-the hexed: el hechizado
-to heal: curar
-drooling: babeante
-lame: cojo
-heir: heredero
-to fear for: temer

BYE-BYE people! Have a good weekend!!!! :)

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Corruption at Philip III´s court: the Duke of Lerma´s case

The Duke of Lerma (1602), painted by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz

As we learnt yesterday, political corruption and influence peddling are not a 21st century invention. The Duke of Lerma, Philip III´s favourite, is a good example of political abuse on his own benefit. His influence over Philip III was such that he convinced him to move the capital city from Madrid to Valladolid in 1601 only because he had bought a lot of land on the outskirts of the city. When the capital city was moved to Valladolid, the Duke sold these properties at a very high price. He did the same some years later: he bought a lot of cheap properties in Madrid. These properties considerably increased their price when Lerma "convinced" the king to move the capital city back to Madrid in 1606. Lerma was an ancestor of many land speculators. 

In 1618 an enquiry about the Duke of Lerma´s way of administering the royal finances was opened. The Duke of Uceda (his own son), father Aliaga, a Dominican monk and the Count-Duke of Olivares denounced corruption and headed a conspiracy against the all-powerful Duke of Lerma and some of his collaborators started being removed from their posts. When the Duke started fearing from being prosecuted, he convinced the Pope to ordain him cardinal and escape civil justice. After this he asked the king permission to leave the court and retired to his palaces in Valladolid and Lerma (Burgos). The people of Madrid started singing a folk song with these lyrics: In order to avoid being hung, the biggest Spanish thief, wears red clothes. (Para no morir ahorcado, el mayor ladrón de España, se viste de colorado, as cardinals did)

There is another curious story about the Duke of Lerma. It seems that Baroque sculptor Gregorio Fernández portrayed him in one of his most famous procession floats: the Deposition with the Two Thieves on the Cross. The Duke of Lerma had been Gregorio Fernández´s patron when the sculptor started working in Valladolid and Fernández might have wanted to thank the Duke for his help. But the fact is that he portrayed the Duke of Lerma as Dismas, the good thief. Was this made on purpose? We don´t really know. But the truth is that the Duke of Lerma is reminded as one of the biggest thieves in power. He became very rich by using influence peddling and selling official posts and used power to escape justice. Nothing to envy to many current corruption cases with politicians!

Here you have a picture of the Duke of Lerma´s bronze statue and Gregorio Fernández´s Good Thief: 

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

17th October, 2012

17th October

Hello eveyone!!

At the beginnig of the class Paqui has explained the correct form to say I agree, because some of us wrote I´m agree in the comments of the blog. And then Paqui has made a review of the things that we saw the other day. (The revolt in the low countries, Philip II´s children) And we have seen Charles II´s family tree.

Charles II´s family tree

After that Paqui has explained that ruling an Empire is very difficult, and all the big Empires of the history felt down (The Roman Empire, The Byzantine Empire, Hispanic Empire etc...)
Paqui has showed us a post on the blog "Sovereing defaults during the Philip II´s reign and later".
A classmate has asked to Paqui about the visits of the blog. Paqui has showed us the statistics of the blog and we have seen other peoples from countries visit the blog to recive more visits (the USA is the country from which we recive more visits) and some of them write comments.
Then we have started with the last point of the unit: "The decline of the Hispanic Empire in the 17th century"
First we have learnt Philip III´s government.

Philip III

Philip III handed his power over the Duke of Lerma and later Duke of Uceda.

Duke of Lerma

The internal problems weren´t solved and he decided the expulsion of the Morish in 1609. More than 275,000 people were expelled (33% present of the population of Aragón). This caused a big economic crisis in the crown of Aragón where they were more numerous. The currency was devaluated for the first time. The economic situation led to a more realistic policy in Eurpoe, and truce was signed with the main enemies: England and Low Countries. We have seen all of this in a power point presentation. And also Paqui has written a summary on the blackboard with the most important information.

Then we have continued with Philip IV, but Juanaco has told a joke, Paqui has said that he had to try to tell it in English, Miguel has tried it but at the end Juanaco has told it in Spanish.

Philip IV

Paqui has explained the Thirty Years´War. The Cound-Duke of Olivares wanted to establish the rules of Castile in all the Empire, but this caused a lot of revolts. The most important revolts were in Catalonia and in Portugal

Conde Duque de Olviares

And also Paqui has also written a small summary on the blackboard of the few things that we have learnt about Philip IV and we have copied it. 
But we haven´t finished this point because the bell has rung.

At the end Paqui has said that we have to study because the exam will be soon!!

And finally some words I have added to the glossary:

-expenses: gastos
-fleet: flota
-Dutch: Holandés
-80 years´war: La guerra de los 80 años
-Threaten: amenazar
-Hunger strike: huelga de hambre
-To starve: morirse de hambre
-Inbreeding: endogamia
-Default: quiebra
-Sovereing default: quiebra (cuando el pais no puede pagar sus deudas)
-To owe: deber
-to lend: prestar
-above: por encima
-to sue: procesar
-Truce: tregua
-coin: moneda