Friday, October 31, 2014

Thursday, 30th October 2014

Hello everybody!!

Today in our Social Sciences lesson, Paqui have revised our homework from last class, that was copy from a Power Point Presentation the main features from Baroque Art (where does it come from, differences with Renaissance Art, etc). After this, she has explained the new scheme we had to do in our notebooks taking the information from our books. It has to contents these things:

-Baroque Architecture: Main Features and Main Artists and works.
-Baroque Sculpture: Main Features and Main Artists and works.
-Baroque Painting: Main Features and Main Artists and works.

We have spent twenty minutes of the class doing our scheme with information from our books. We have completed our schemes with information such us:

-In Baroque, in Architecture and Sculpture, the movement is a very important characteristic.
-The most importants architectures were: Bernini and Borromimi.
-The most importants sculptures were: Bernini and Nicola Salvi (he made the "Fontana di Trevi").
-In painting, there is a predominance of color over drawing, just in opposite as it was in Renaissance Art.
-The most important painters were from Italy, Flanders, and from the Low Countries: Michelangelo from Italy, Peter Paul Rubers from Flanders, and Van Rijin and Johannes Vemeer from the Low Countries. They made a lot of paintings.

After finishing our scheme, Paqui did a little explanation about a new project we have to do: a project about Baroque Art. In opossite as the previous project of Renaissance Art, this project will be done individualy and the deadline is on 20th of November.
In this project we have to analyse one work from Baroque, it could be from Architecture, Sculpture or from Painting. Paqui has assigned me the sculpture "Blessed Ludovica Albertoni" from Bernini. I hope i will like to do this project and we will learn a lot about Baroque Art.

piazza San Francesco a Ripa - San Francesco a Ripa's church


We're getting the exam next week, so we have to study a lot in this long weekend.


30th October 2014

Hello I'm Rodrigo!

Today in the class of Social Sciences the teacher Paqui has showed a video  (posted by Amalia), the video talks about the 17th century in England, how kings received their power,

We have seen some photos of the Sant's Paul Cathedral of Chistopher Wren, he drew inspiration from  of San Peter Basilica in Rome. And we have talked about Iñigo Jones who was the first significant British architect of the early modern period, he made Banqueting House in England

Then we have spoken about the empiricism , of Galileo Galilei, who was a scientist who defended the most important theory, the heliocentric theory ( the planets turn around the Sun). The Catholic Inquisition Catholic said: if you don't recant you will kill you. And he had to recant, but he said EPPUR SI MUOVE: However it moves

EPPUR SI MUOVE: However it moves

After Empiricism, we have spoken about Rationalism… we have concluded that if you have a doubt, this is the best way to learn, this was stated by René Descartes and it’s summarized on his quote COGITO ERGO SUM: I think, therefore I exist

We have talked about if the animals think about their existence , their lied of his life... Later we have written some scientifics of the 17th century like Francis Baron, Isaac Newton, Nicholas Copernicus Johannes Kepler and Gottfried Leibniz. All this people lived in protenstant countries. This is not casual. The Protestant religious gave more freedom and more progress in scientific than  Catholic religious. In the Inquisition Catholic the progress in scientific was inexistence because Inquisition Catholic go to their house and chosed them. They said that the Earth is the center of the universe, because it's created by God. Dogma is rigid and you can't change it. 

Other features of this period, were the Royal Academies ( sponsored by the king ). For example the Royal Academy of Language, Art or Sciences in France ( 18th century) and the Royal Society in Great Britain. 

Then we have copied an scheme of the Baroque art ( chronology, general features, architecture, sculpture, painting).

And finally we have spoken about the proyect, we have to write a text of two works of architecture, sculpture or painting, including chronology, who was author the , Baroque features. The teacher has said that she has to write a post with all the information. 

The teacher said that we have to do the scheme because she will check it..

Some vocabulary: 

- Proof: prueba
- To recant : retractarse
- Royal Academy: Real Academia
- Grand Tour: Gran Tour 


Bye and enjoy the longweekend! 

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Instructions and guidance for your Baroque

You may have received an e-mail with the names of the Baroque works of art you will have to study. This is what you will have to do: 

- Write an individual post about the two works of art you have to study. The post will have to include the following data compulsorily: Title, author, pictures to understand what you are explaining, the text you have written and the sources you have used to prepare it. 

- You should start looking for information about your work of art in Spanish. You have to make sure that you understand all the information before starting writing. Prepare a previous scheme and be sure that you don´t forget any part, review the main Baroque features and try to find them on your work of art

- Use different sources of information (not only Wikipedia), don´t copy and paste and don´t use the computer translator (I will know it if you do it and this may make you fail this project) Write simple and understandable sentences. 

- Copy the links of the websites you visit to include them at the end of your explanation and file them on a Word document. This way, you won't lose time looking for the links you've used when you finish your project.

- The names of the works of art have to be written in Italic font (cursiva) and with all the words in capital letters (nouns and verbs, not prepositions). For example: Saturn Devouring His Son, The Crucifixion of Saint Peter. 

- You have to understand what you explain because once the projects will be finished, I will ask you about them in class, in the same way we did with the Renaissance art projects. 

These are the specific guidelines for architecture, sculpture and painting


Palazzo Carignano, Guarino Guarini in Torino (Italy)

The analysis of a building has to include: 

-  The title and author of the building

- The chronological and geographic context: where and when the sculpture was made and who commissioned the sculpture.

- Type of building and function

- Commissioner

- Materials used

- Description of its different parts: facade, floor plan and elevation, decorative elements used, proportions, integration in the space

- The features of the art style the building belongs to and the correspondence between the features of the building and the art style.

- Additional information: influence in other buildings

You can include one or several pictures of the building, its floor plan and also the portrait of its author. 


David, Bernini

The analysis of a sculpture has to include this information:

- The title and author of the sculpture.

- The chronological and geographic context: where and when the sculpture was made and who commissioned the sculpture.

- Technical data: size, material used, where the sculpture is at present...

- A description of the sculpture, taking into account this rule: first we have to talk about what we see and after we can add details of what we have learnt in our research. We have to include the material, technique, figures represented, light, movement, clothes, influences the author received, symbols and meaning.

- The features of the art style the sculpture belongs to and the correspondence between the features of the sculpture and the art style it belongs to.

- Additional interesting information: importance of the sculpture in the story of art, influence of the sculpture in other artists.

You can include one or several pictures of the sculpture and also the portrait of its author. 

You have an example of a sculpture analysis on page 115 of your book. Read it before writing your text. 



Saint Thomas' doubt, Caravaggio

 The analysis of a painting has to include: 

- The title and author of the painting.

- The chronological and geographic context: where and when the painting was made and who commissioned the painting.

- Technical data: size, material used, where the painting is at present...
- A description of the painting: technique, people represented, places, colours and shapes, light, influences the author received, symbols and meaning.

- The features of the art style the painting belongs to and the correspondence between the features of the painting and the art style it belongs to.

- Additional interesting information: importance of the painting in the history of art, influence of the painting in other artists.

You can include one or several pictures of the painting and also the portrait of its author. 

You have an example of a painting analysis on page 88 of your book. Read it before writing your text. 

And finally, here you have some useful websites to find  good information: 

- Smart History:


- Fountains in Rome:

- El Prado Museum: Here you will find a lot of information about Velázquez, Murillo, Ribera, Ribalta, Rubens and Zurbarán:

- Velázquez´s paintings at the National Gallery:

- Rembrandthuis: the Rembrandt House Museum in Amsterdam:

- Essential Vermeer: a very complete website about the painter Vermeer:

- Caravaggio´s paintings:


Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Friday 24th of October

Hello Everybody!
Today in the class of Social Sciences we have done a lot of things.
We have started the class copying a new scheme about the decline of the Hispanic Empire.
The scheme included Philip III's validos: duke of Lerma and when he was suspected of corruption, he was replaced by the duke of Uceda, his son. And his main events as the devaluation of currency, the twelve years' truce... It also included Philip IV's validos: Count-Duke of Olivares and also the main problems, for example the Thirty Years' war in 1648 and the Union of arms project. Charles II's validos were Fernando de Valenzuela and Juan José de Austria. His main problems were firstly his physical and mental problems and when he died without successor. Because of this, took placer the War of Spanish Succession. This is what we have copied in the scheme. We also have copied some words in the glossary.
Here I leave you a photo of Charles III of Spain.


Tuesday, 28th of October.

Good afternoon to everybody!

Today, Tuesday 28th of October, in the class of Social Sciences we have continued with point 
D) CULTURE AND ART: Scientific Revolution, Empiricism, Rationalism and Baroque art.
Yesterday, Paqui gave to us some homework: we had to look for the definition of Empiricism and Rationalism. So, at first, we have corrected this two definitions. Gema has read her definition of Empiricism: Method of knowledge based on experience; observing nature, formulating hyphoteses, testing them and writing a theory. And then I have read my definition of Rationalism: Method of knowledge based on the use of reason to learn. It was started by the philossopher René Descartes. Doubt was basic for him to start warning. After this, Paqui has corrected the mistakes and she has explained Empiricism and Rationalism to us. Also, Paqui has explained the main features of the rational been (thinking), and she also has write on the blackboard a small summary about Rationalism; COGITO ERGO SUM (latin sentence), which means: I think, therefore I exist. 
Paqui has also talk about the life of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei.

Then, she has told us the discoveries during the 17th century, and we have talk about the scientifics of this century. The most important scientifics were Newton, Leibriz, Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Copérnico; all them lived on the protestant countries of the Holy Roman Empire. Paqui has explained the life of Galileo Galilei; he didn't was killed, but he was recanted, because science was opposite with religion. Galileo said that the Earth revolved around the Sun; and society didn't think this, they thought that all the planets turned around the Earth.

Paqui has also talk about the Royal academy of Language and Art created in Madrid during the 18th century. And then we have talk about the TV serie of Isabel. In the episode of yesterday, the king Charles I was born; son of Joanna of Castile, more known as Joanana the Mad; daughter of the Catholic Monarchs.

After this, Paqui has explained to us that the society of this century thought that when the children born, touch them was a sin. And the hygiene was used to prevent illnesses.

Later, we have started with Baroque art. We have seem a Power Point presentation and Paqui has said that Baroque art is a realistic art, with straigh lines, geometric and simple forms. She has told us that "baroque" is a perjorative word to define and exuberant and exaggeraded art in contrast to Renaissance art and New Classicism. And also the chronology of Baroque art: Predominant style during 17th century and part of 18th century. Some examples of Baroque art are: Collegiate Church of Catania, Italy; Square and Colonnade of Saint Peter of the Vatican, Bernini; Versailles Palace...
Paqui has also explained the differences between Baroque art and Renaissance art:

  • Balance.
  • Ideal of beauty.
  • Simplicity.
  • Proportions
  • Straight lines.
  • Predominance of drawing over colour and light.
  • Movement.
  • Realism in representations.
  • Complexity.
  • Interest in suprissing the audience.
  • Curved lines, concave and convex.
  • Predominance of colour and light over drawing.
And finally, we have copied some new words in our glossary, like:
- I wish I: Ójala.
- To set free: Liberar.
- To lose ground: Perder terreno.
- To recant: Retractarse.
- Eppur Si Muove: The Earth move.
- Hygiene: Higiene.
- Pearl: Perla.
- Exuberant: Exuberante.
- Balance: Equilibrio.

Today was an interesting lesson.

                                                                    Galileo Galilei.

                                                     Collegiate Church of Catania, Italy.

                                                                      Versailles Palace.

                             Square and Colonnade of Saint Peter of the Vatican, Bernini, Rome.

Tuesday 28th october 2014

  Hello everybody!!

 Today, at the begining of the lesson Paqui has given to the people who has repeated their projects, she has given their marks, only a group has failed and this group is going to have a part of Renaissance art in their exams.

 After that, we have reviewed the part of demography, economy and society in which we have learned that population decreased due to bad harvests, wars, migration to the Indies and the expulsion of the Moorish. Due to this, an economic recesion started, but also for negative political decisions, inefficient farming tecniques and competition for cheaper and better quality products. About society we have learned that as nobility was the main social model, people started to think that manual  work  was considered shameful and dishonest.

 The conclussion about that, is that people wanted to live without working and Paqui has told us that this continues to happens nowadays and she give us the example of Belén Esteban.

After this she has asked us to  raise our hands if : If we were rich , would we  continue working? Only five of us have raised their hands.

  She has told us also that when a new king arrived to the peninsula from Napples, Charles III, he had to issue a law  saying that manual work is not dishonest, but even whith this law, people continued to think that it was.

  Later we have started with the point c, about culture and art in the 17th century .We have copied as a chronologic scheme about the Middle Ages and the Modern Era, it is about the secularization process (the progressive liberation of knowledge from religion):
 In the Middle Ages religion stopped the progress of science and thinking ,then on the 15th and 16th centuries, during the Humanism, human beings became center of interest and scholars tried to separate thinking from religion and the Protestant Reformation started. After that ,in the 17th century the Scientific Revolution started and about this we have to define two concepts: Empiricism and rationalism .
We have also learned that the 17th century was the golden age for literature
We have also decided the date for the exam that will be next friday .
We have added some new words in the glossary :
Survey- encuesta
The swidler- El buscón
Rogue- pícaro
Schdar- sabio, erudito 
And that was all we have done today .
(Miguel de Cervantes belongs to the golden age)

                                  I found this video about the 17th century in europe

Presentations of Baroque art (general and in the Hispanic Monarchy)

Here you have the two presentations that correspond to Baroque art style: 

Monday, October 27, 2014

Monday, 27th October, 2014

Hello to everybody!! Today I'm going to do the journal, and I'm the last student that have to do the journal.Today in Social Sciences class, Paqui has asked about the scheme that we had to do about the Demography, the economy and the society in the 17th century.
-Demography:the population declined for several reasons: bad harvests, plagues, the expulsion of the Moorish, wars, migrations to the Indies.
-Economy: there was an economic recession for several reasons:
·Decrease of production in agriculture due to inefficient farming techniques and bad climatic conditions, which caused droughts and floods. The expulsion of the Moorish also caused a negative impact, especially in the Crown of Aragón.
·The arrival of cheaper and better quality foreign products imported from the northern Europe caused a negative impact over p0cal craftsmanship. Many  workshops went bankrupt. +·Less demand for products, as a result of the demographic crisis. Trade declined too.
-Society: the nobless were the social model. They lived off rents, without working. Hand work was considered shameful and dishonest. Many people aspired to live without working. There were lots of beggars and rogues, who lived from begging and crime.
Then, Paqui has  asked us if we have an idol, and we have spoken about Julian JRA and his song.
After this, Paqui has  asked us about Spanish scientifics and about Spanish writers. We also spoke about famous people who are famous without doing anything, like Belén Esteban.
To finish the class we have started a little scheme about  the Middle Ages- Middle Era. We have to complete the parts about Rationalism and Empiricism.
We have also decided on the date of the exam that is the next week, Thursday 6 of November.

We have included to our glossary new words like:
-To live off rents: vivir de las rentas.
-Dishonest: deshonesto.
-Suntanned: bronceado.
-Shameful: vergonzoso.
-Smort/ clever: inteligente.
-Rogue: pícaro.
-Beggar: mendigo.
-Lazzy: vago.
-Golden Age: Siglo de Oro.
I have attached this photo about Phillip IV:

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Thursday 23rd October 2014

Good afternoon to everybody! Today in Social sciences class Paqui has checked if we have the scheme she gave to us the last day. The scheme we have to do for today was the scheme of the Decline of the Hispanic Empire: Philip III (1598-1621) and his government and the thingss he has done; Philip IV the things that he has done and some laws he established; Charles II what happened with he, what diseables that he had. 
We have corrected the scheme and Paqui has explained to us that a long time ago in the royal family and with all this kings they were married whith some members of their family and that's why the children had many diseables such as Charles II who was known "The Hexed", she has also explained all that this kings, Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II did.
>Philip III:
-Twelve years truce (1609-1621).
-Expulsion of the Moorish (1609).
- Devaluation of currency.
>Philip IV: He established the same fules over all the peninsular kingdoms.
-Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
-Project of the Union of Arms:
  • Catalonia, supported by France. The peace of the Pyrenees.
  • Portugal, the conflict ended with the treaty of Lisbon and the definitive independence of Portugal (1668)
>Charles II: He was known as "The Hexed".
-War of Spanish Succesion (1700-1713).
We have also add many words to the vocabulary such as: "to take advantage of", "Habsburg"...
Paqui has given us homework to do at the weekend.  We have to do a summery of the Demography, society and economy.
That's all for today. It was an interesting and funny class.

Thursday, 23rd October 2014

Hi people! I'm Gustavo. Today in class of Social Sciences we have started tolking about the English revolutions. Then we have seen some slides about Charles II, James II and William of Orange. After this we have started with Hispanic Empire.

Paqui has copied the meaning of Habeas Corpus (Right every person who is arrested has: They have the right to know why they have been arrested in order to prepare their defense. This obliges also the authorities, because they can't arrent anyone without real evidence of their crimes.

We have copied some words in the glossary like hegemonic (hegemonico), hegemony (hegemonía), state-nation (estado-nación), to be of age (ser mayor de edad), conspiracy (conspiración), protector lord (lord protector), to get rid of (deshacerse), habean corpus (Habeas Corpus), arbitrary (arbitrario), Bill of the Right (declaración de derechos), son in law (yerno), crime (delito), to rape (vidar), nun (monja), Sterile (esteril), To atrophy (atrofiar), lame (cojo).

At the end we have talked about a very funny story. One of the most important kings of the Hipanic Empire has raped a nun!!


Wednesday, October 22, 2014

21st October 2014 (Tuesday)

Hi everybody! I am Cristina. I'm sorry, I couldn't write the journal yesterday, so I am doing it now, and I apologize for that.
Today in social sciences class Paqui has talked a little bit about the Renaissance Art projects: people who haven't finished it yet must give it to Paqui next day. Later, we have corrected what we had to summarize about the second part of the point 3 of the unit: Politics in the 17th century:

We can distinguish three main events in politics of the 17th century:

-The Thirty Years' War: the protestants and the French wanted to defy Halisburg's dynasty hegemony. It was a religious conflict, but also a fight for hegemony in Europe. the Protestant kingdoms of the north of Europe and France fought against the Catholic kingdoms of the south of Europe. The Hispanic Monarchy army conquered the city of Breda (1634), but they were defeated (1643). This meant the end of the Hispanic hegemony in Europe.
This war finished with the signature of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648:
· All the kingdomss accepted the Peace of Augsburg principles: religious
freedom (which supposed the end of religious wars)
                        · The Hispanic Monarchy lost its hegemony in Europe
                        · Consolidation of State-nations and Absolute Monarchy.
· Huge demographic losses in the Holy Roman Empire (some states lost half of their population).           
At the end of the Thirty Years’ War consequences, we’ve talked about races, and I have remembered something that Paqui said to us last week when we were reading about the Indies: “Have you ever seen “black blood?” I think it’s an interesting reflection. What do you think?

-Absolute Monarchy: Kings consolidated their authority, especially over the priviledged groups. The kings were helped by an important bureaucracy to rule. The Parliaments limited kings’ power.
The main example of absolute monarchy is Luis XIV, the Sun King, who moved the court to Versailles and imposed his authority over his subjects.

-English Revolutions: there were two different revolutions in England:
            · 1648. A civil war started because Charles I Steward tried to rule as an absolute monarch, without the control of the Parliament. One year later Charles I was decapitated and the Republic was proclaimed. Monarchy was reestablished in 1660 when Oliver Cromwell, the Protector Lord, died. The deputies limited the king’s powers with the Habeas Corpus.
            · 1689. After the definite expel of the Steward dinasty from the throne, William of Orange, the new King, swore the Bill of the Rights, which limited the king’s power and put some of his decisions under the control of the Parliament. England was the first country to have a limited monarchy, with a separation of the powers of the King (executive) and of the Parliament (legislative).
Charles I Steward 
William I of Orange

We have also learned some new concepts, like “to be of age” (ser mayor de edad), “conspiracy” (conspiración) and “hamlet” (aldea).

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Tuesday, 21st of October 2014

Hello class!

I'm Silvia and this is my firts journal because It's my first year with Paqui.

Today in Social Sciences lesson we have started reviewing what we did yesterday and then, she asked where was Sara and Alfredo said that she was in the doctor.

Then we started with the decline of the hispanic empire which were governed by: Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II.

Philip III                                        Philip IV                                             Charles II

 Paqui told us that spanish monarchy loss importance, the population were unhappy with the kings because they were changing the capital of the kingdom when they wanted to buy new territories cheaper. For example: the capital was Madrid and the king wanted to buy territories but there were very expensive so he decided to move the capital to Aragon, buy new territories in Madrid because were cheaper and then moved again the capital to Madrid.

Paqui has explained us who were the validos. They were members of the privileged estates (nobles or members of the clergy) who ruled on behalf of the kings, because they didn't want to work or they were not able to ride.

We have copied a part of the presentation which was compound of the twelve years truce, expulsion of the moorish and the devaluation of currency.

Then, we have asked Paqui how did she learnt english. She told us that she had learn french in school and she has explained to us that her story with the english was very curious because she started learning english with a TV program which was dedicated to teach english to spanish people. Then, she decided to continue learning english and she has said that she learn a lot teaching us.

 For the last we have copied a scheme of the decline of the hispanic empire and we have to complete it at home.

We have copied some important words in Glossary which are:

-Decline: decadencia.
-Valido: valido.
-To mint: acuñar (moneda).
-Copper: cobre.
-Truce: tregua.
-Harmful: dañino, perjudicial.
-Influence peddling: tráfico de influencia.
-Flaw: defecto.
-Flawless: sin defectos.

See you on thursday!

Monday, October 20, 2014

Prezi presentation of the English revolutions

Thanks to Stefania we have this extraordinary resource about the English revolutions. Have a look on it. It's very detailed and you will understand this process better. 

17th October, 2014 (Friday)

Good afternoon to everybody!!

Sorry, I'm late. I thought that I could write my journal today, like we don't have Social Science class. My journal it was written and prepare in another SHEET of paper and now I'm going to tell us the Friday's class.

The lesson started when the teacher put negatives and positives marks while she look at the homeworks that she had commanded on Thursday for Friday.
The homework was about a summary of trade but the following information is the summary of Paqui. I think that is interesting. What about you?

TRADE: long distance trade developed a lot, mainly colonial trade:

- Traditional routes continued to be used:

  • Spice route, controlled by Portugal.
  • Precious metal route, controlled by Castilian.

- England and Low Countries bloke the Iberian monopoly an seized some Portuguese colonies in Asia. The Elglish seized India and the Dutch seized Indonesia.
- New route: triangular trade, linking Europe, Africa and America.

  • Europe sold manufactured products to Africa.
  • Africa sold slaves and gold to America.
  • America sold colonial products to Europe (cotton, sugar, tobaco, cocoa...)

After resolve the dudes about this information we have stopped the class because we have copied in our glossary a new word; rum that means "ron". We have stopped the class because we have tell to Paqui one patetic thing that happened to Jorge.

Then Paqui has continued with her class and she has saw us an animate map. The map was about the triangular trade routes but didn't speak and the teacher explain us where were destined those products.
When we have finished the teacher has put one or two questions about this map. Also she has saw a map in which we can practice.

Paqui has recommended us that we have to see the film "Dances with wolves" that is about the destruction of the aberindian. She says that is very interesting and the music is so beautiful, but I don't like western films... Dances With Wolves is produced by, and starring Kevin Costner.

For finished the lesson we have started the second point of the 17th century: Politics.

The teacher needs 4 blackboards each day hahahaha!

See you on Tuesday!


Monday, 20th October, 2014

Good afternoon!

Today in Social Sciences lesson, as every day, we have done a lot of things.
First of all, Paqui has asked Silvia about his ankle, and Paqui has also asked about Sara, because she wasn't in the class. For this reason we have copied the two firsts words of our today's glossary:

- Sprain ankle: esguince en el tobillo.
- ID card: DNI.

Then, Paqui has reviewed our schemes, to see if we had done them. When she has finished, we have started to correct them. 
We have talked a little about the Man in the Iron Mask.
Paqui has explained us the definition of:

Hegemony: it is the first position in something. For example, in Asia is China, in Europe is Germany, in America are the United States...

We have seen a picture of the percentage of population loss in the Empire during the Thirty Years' War. 

We have spoken also about one of the most important battles of the Thirty Years' War:

Capture of Breda: in which Pihlip IV's troops conquered the city of Breda in 1634, but they were defeated at Rocroi in 1643.
We have also seen a photo of the decapitation of Charles I during the 1648 English revolutions, but this decapitation was in 1649.

Decapitation of Charles I

And we have copied a new word:

- Executioner: verdugo.

Then we have spoken about Oliver Cromwell. In the 1648 English revolutions he was declared Protector Lord, but he was a tyrant. Monarchy was restablished in 1660. But deputies limited the powers of the king with a new concept we have learnt:

HABEAS CORPUS: it was a right people had to defend himself when you were arrested. 
For example, if you were arrested, you could use the habeas corpues right to defend yourself, to ask why had you been arrested and prepare your defense (like a lawyer of the present). And in this way, the king couldn't arrest pepople arbitrarily. So it was an advance.

We have spoken about William of Orange too, who accepted the proposition of some English nobles to dethrone James II and become the king of England. In 1689 he swore the Bill of the rights, which limited the king's power and make decisions without the control of the Parliament.

William of Orange (1650-1702)

We have also learnt that during the 1688 English revolutions, England became a limited monarchy, and it was the first country to have one.

And finally, to end the lesson, we have spoken about Charles II. He was hermaphrodite. And he was lame and constantly drooling. He had all these problems because his chromosomes were XXY.

Charles II (1630-1685)

We have also copied these words:

- Hegemony: hegemonía
- Capture: captura
- Westphalia: Westfalia
- Signature: firma
- Executioner: verdugo
- To cede: ceder
- HABEAS CORPUS: (Tengas cuerpo): the translation is the same in Spanish, but with an accent: Hábeas Corpus
- To swear: jurar
- Hexed: hechizado
- To heal: curar

And this is all for today, I hope you have a good afternoon.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

16 October, 2014 (Thursday)

Hello to everyone!

I'm Inés and this is my first journal of the year.

Today in the class of Social Sciences, we have done a lot of things!

Firstly, Paqui has talk about the photo of the students of this year for the blog and she has told us that it's better to do only one photograph with both groups together.

After this, Cristina Mañez has corrected "Colonial society", which is the last part of the squeme "Conquest, Administration and Colonization of the Indies". Cristina has told us that: There were different social groups living in the Indies, and their position depended on their origin:

  • The peninsulars: economic and political power and they held the main posts in administration.
  • Creoles: descendants of colonists. As time went by they started complaining about their psition.
  • Mestizos: mixture between colonists and American Indians.
  • Black slaves: slaves from Africa. They were sold in the depopulated territories to work in the plantations.
To explain it better, Paqui has drawn a pyramid explaining Colonial society in grades or estates of population.

Then, we have started to talk about Bartolomé de las Casas because he wrote a short account of the destruction of the Indies.


To understand the situation, Paqui has explained another situation, that all of us understand really well, she has talked about the Spanish Constitution therefore we have konwn that there are a lot of laws that aren't real.

Later, we have studied the products from American origin like tomatoes, corn, pepper, potatoes, coccoa, tobaco, avocado, sunflowers, pumpkin, peanuts... Also, there are products in America with European origin like wheat, barley, oats, donkeys, horses, cows, chicken, rabbits...

Today, we have finished the point 2 of the unit so we have started te point 3 "The 17th century"  part a) "Demography, society and economy".

We have copied from the blackboard a squeme of the part a) and, at the same time, the teacher has explained the slow population growth, due to high mortality rate caused by wars, epidemics and famines; the society sitll into states privileged and underprivileged people. And then, the economy; agriculture continued to be the main activity; most of the production continued to be made by craftsmen in workshops and controlled by the guilds, in some places, merchants created manufactories to escape the control of guilds.

At the end of the lesson, Paqui has given some homework to us, to complete the scheme that we have started in class because we haven't got time to finish it in class.

Today, like always we have copied some vocabulary: 
  • Obey the order, but don't follow it: Obedézcase, pero no se cumpla.
  • Useless: Inútil.
  • Unfair: Injusto.
  • Population growth: Crecimiento de la población.
  • Harvest: Cosecha.
  • Moratlity rate: Tasa de mortalidad.

Thursday,16th of October

Hello everyone! I'm Minerva and I'm going to write my first journal of the year.

Today in Social Sciences we have learned a lot of things.

At first, we have reviewed the summary that we had to do for today. It was about demography, economy and society of the 17th century. Marta has read the demography summary that says there was a slow population growth due to high mortality rates caused by wars, epidemics and famines.
Then, Nuria has read the society summary. The society continued to be divided into the privileged and underprivileged estates and there was increasing discontent of the bourgeois because they didn't have political power.
Finally María has read the last part of the homework which was the economy summary. Agriculture continued to be the predominant economic activity and there were some changes in production and trade. Manufactories were created to avoid intermediaries and sell the products directly in the market and to produce more of them.

Gobelins Manufactory, Paris.

After reading this, Paqui has started explaining us the trade in the 17th century with some slides.
Some new countries intervened in long distance trades, apart from the Hispanic Monarchy and Portugal. They were England, France and the Low Countries. We have written down that England and Holland seized some territories from Portugal (Cape Colony and the Spice Islands respectively).

We have also seen that trading companies appeared. They were created to share the risks and expenses of long distance trades. Shareholders invested their money and, if the bussiness didn't fail, they received the corresponding part of the profits. If not, they were not responsible for the losses.

A new trade route linking Europe, Africa and America appeared. The triangular trade. In this website you can see with details all the products Europe, Africa and America sold and bought.

To finish with the lesson, Paqui has explained us the Absolute Monarchy from the Politics in the 17th century scheme. A perfect example of this type of monarchy was Louis XIV of France or also know as "The Sun King".

Louis XIV, King of France, in 1661
The Sun King's emblem

During the lesson we have written down some new words in our glossaries like:
- Famine: hambruna.
- Stock Exchange Market: bolsa
- Partner: socios.
- Public Limited Company: Sociedad Anónima.
- Share/stock: acción.
- Shareholder/stockholder: accionista.
- Profit: beneficio.
- Scholar: sabio, erudito.
And so on. 
For homework we have to complete the scheme which is formed by the Thirty Years War with its causes, consequences and development, the Absolute Monarchy with its main features and examples and English revolutions with the same points as the Thirty Years War.

And that's all! Hope you have a good weekend! See you on Monday.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

14th October 2014 (Tuesday)

Hello everybody! I'm Fernando
Today in the class of social sciences we have started reading and talking about a text that Paqui published last Sunday. Last Sunday was the 12th of October, it's a importat day because we celebrate the "discovery of América" by Columbus. The text talks about all these things. Also we have seen some photos to think about what, the discovery supposed the indigenous people that live in América.

Columbus with the indegenous people of America.

Latter we have started to correct the part of the scheme about the indies (América) that we had to complete at home. First we have corrected the administration of the Indies, Some institutions were created to rule the indies. They created Viceroyalties, Cabildos and Courts of Justice to rule the Indies. Also we have corrected exploitation of the Indies. They had two systems to exploit the indigenous people, the Encomienda system to exploit the lands and the Mita system to exploit the mines. We haven't corrected the colonial society, another part of the scheme.

Indigenous working the land.
We have added some new words to our glossary:
Viceroy: virrey
Vice-royalty: virreinado
On the outskirts: a las afueras
Royal fifth: quinto real
Load: carga
Customs: aduana
Greed: codicia, avarícia
Greedy: avaricioso
On my side: de mi parte
To enslave: esclavizar

Tuesday, 14th of October 2014

Hello everybody! I 'm Clara Inés and this is my first journal of the year.

Today in Social Sciences we have done a lot of things.

At first Paqui has been talking about the project that we have to do, about the Baroque art.

Later we have started with a new point, the point three: "The 17th century".Fran has started to read on our book the Overview of this point, that said, that in the period of the 17th century was a period of crisis and contrasts, there was an Absolute Monarchy that was the predominant form of the goverment, the English Revolutions took place, and the division between Catholic and Protestant countries caused a new war, and the Baroque was the new art style of this period.

Later we have continued which the point A: "Demography, Society and Economy".

Alfredo has started to read on the book the Demography, which said, that the population grew very slowly, due to the high mortality caused by epidemics (like the Black Death, we also studied this at 2nd ESO)Only in the places where new agricultural techniques were introduced, the population grew.

A man suffering from buboes and splotches
A man with the Black Death

Later Sara has started to read the Society in the 17th century, which said, that it continued to be divided into estates (privileged and underprivileged) but the underprivileged estate grew.

Marta has continued to read the Economy, agriculture continued to be the main economic activity, this was divided into :

-Production: In this part Paqui has done a drawing about the merchants and she has said that the merchants started concentrating workers in big workshops called manufactories. Mechants provided tools and raw materials and workers received a salary in exchange for their work. The products of the merchants, could be sold them directly in markets, they produced: tapestry, crockery and glassware.

-Trade: this part has been read by Minerva, this said that, international trade grew , and sea routes opened by the Portuguese and the Castilians in the 16th century continued to exist. In the 17th century a new trade route appeared the triangular trade which linked Europe,Africa and America. The English , the French and the Dutch broke the Iberian monopoly of colonial trade and formed the trading companies ,their ships received the protaction of their States. Portugal lost its main important colonies of Asia, England saized India, Holand saized Indonesia, but Portugal also kept Goa, Diu and Damao.

Paqui has explained this with some maps of the presentation.


Triangular Trade

We have also added some new words to our glossary:

Overview-visión general
Weather-tiempo atmosférico
And so on.

At the end of the class Paqui hasgiven us the homework that we have to do: a summary about all that we have learnt today: Demography, Society and Economy.

Finally the bell has rung and we have gone to another class.


Presentation of the 17th century

As I remembered, I had a different presentation for this part of the unit. Here you have it:

Monday, October 13, 2014

Monday, 13th of October

Hi! I'm Javi, and that's my Social Science journal.
 we have been speaking about the administrations of the Indies, Paquihas spoken about the new vice-royalties that were added to the Spanish empire.:
- they were two at the beginning: New Spain and Perú. In the 18th century the vice-royalty of Perú was divided into two more: Nueva Granada and Río de la Plata. 
In castille new organizations were created
Council of the Indies: had the charge of adviced the king, made teh laws for the Indies and Appointed the people for post there
Trading house in Seville: It has the charges of control the trade and collect the royal fifth, that was a old tax in the Spanish empire that consist of collect the 20% of the loot of war, found as a treasure or extracting by mining

                                          (Trading House, Seville )
 Then, we have been speaking about the encomienda system,which consisted of givingevery colonist (received) a plot of land and a number of indigenous to work for him
- The only obligation that the colonist had was teaching the indigenous people  the religion and protect them.
We have also spoken about the Mita, it was a forced work in the mines, but in this case, the colonist paid for their work, but the money that the indigenous won had to be spent in the colonist shops.
Slavery was forbidden, but a lot of colonists abused the indigenous.
 we have also spoken about Bartolomé de las Casas, who was a encomendero, butdenounced the explotation of the indigenous.
Bartolomé de las Casas was appointed the Protector of the Indies.
finally, we have spoken about the population of the Indies:
-Ameridians: they were the indigenous people of the Indies.
-Mestizo: the were the childrens of a Spanish man and an indigenous woman
-Slaves from Africa: The Spanish brought them from Africa to work in America
-Criollo: People who were born in America, but that had European ancestors
-Peninsulars: People from the Iberian Peninsula.
At the end of the lesson,Paqui has give us the mark from the project about the Renaissance art

Too, we have added some new words to our glossary:
Vicerroy- Vicerrey
Vice Royalty- Vicerreinato
Greed- Avaricia
Greedy- Avaricioso
Mining- Minería
Royal fifth- Quinto real

Here you are the link for Puffer's video, learn and have fun time classmates !!

Fco.Javier Martín-Pueblas Pérez-Bustos (Bilingual program)